It is clear that once humans were able to stand and walk on two feet, they found nourishment in the wild fruit that they managed to pick from the trees. The great many seeds found everywhere in archeological excavations dating back to the earliest days of prehistory are proof of this.
Humans gradually modified plants and trees to improve their fruits through cultivation, pruning, and grafting. Drawn and written evidence of this has likewise been found. They also learned to dry and candy fruit to preserve it.
At the same time, certain fruit trees passed from one continent to another, spread by migratory birds feeding on their fruit and scattering their seeds.
Fruit was loved more than vegetables for a long time, and many of them were also considered "medicines". It was preferred cooked to raw in the Middle Ages, in dishes such as pear cooked in wine and spices.
By the Renaissance, mainly in Italy, many varieties of fruit were already being cultivated, while a native of Lyon, Michel de Notre-Dame, also known as Nostradamus, published a work on preserves and candied fruit in 1555.
With the development of transportation in the early 20th century, imported fruit became increasingly common.
However, fruit growing on every continent is becoming more and more industrialized, often to the detriment of quality. Traditional varieties have disappeared, and others have been created to respond to commercial criteria of easy transport and storage, to the detriment of flavor.
Citrus and nuts are stored in ambient conditions. If very ripe, the remainder can be kept in the refrigerator or cool room, although the cold is very likely to diminish their flavors.
The different fruits have many things in common.
They contain no protein or fat, except for nuts.
They all contain a certain amount of carbohydrate and fiber.
They have a high water content, with the exception of nuts and chestnuts.
They are also high in minerals, except sodium (salt).
They all contain vitamin C, but the amount varies. They are the main source of this in our diets.
They also contain different antioxidants (carotenoids, flavonoids, polyphenols, etc.), and also in amounts that vary from fruit to fruit.
Fruit that is frozen directly, without added sugar, have the same nutritional value as fresh fruit.
Canned, it loses vitamin C, part of which is destroyed during sterilization.
If eaten each day in sufficient amounts, fruit is one of the pillars of a healthy, balanced diet, because of their many protective effects.
The only feature common to all fruit is their high water content. They are classified as:
**. Citrus fruits**
Seville orange, citron, lemons and limes, clementines and mandarins, kumquat, orange, pomelo, and grapefruit.
Their taste is more or less acid, or sour. They are protected by a rind. Owing to imports, they are available throughout the year.
**. Stone fruits**
Apricot, cherry, nectarine, medlar, peach, plum.
They are mainly summer fruit.
**. Pome fruit**
Quince, fig, kiwi fruit, melon, watermelon, pear, apple, grape.
The only common feature of these fruits is that they have seeds.
**. Red berries**
Wild cranberry, strawberry and wild strawberry, raspberry, blackcurrant, cranberry, red currant and gooseberry, blackberry/mulberry, blueberry.
All of them are very delicate; they do not keep and only come to market at the end of spring.
. Tropical fruits
Pineapple, banana, star fruit, date, mango, coconut, papaya, lychee, guava, passion fruit.
This classification comes from the fact that they only grow in warm or tropical countries. They can be purchased all year round.
Almond, peanut, hazelnut, walnut, cashew, pecan, Brazil nut, macadamia, pine nut, pistachio.
These are mostly eaten dry, with their shell removed. They are also oleaginous fruits, rich in fats and a source of oil. They are available all year round.
The chestnut is also a fruit, but owing to its special characteristics, it is not found in any of these categories.
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